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Documentation

The documentation on this site is always for the latest version of Javalin (currently 2.4.0). We don’t have the capacity to maintain separate docs for every single version, but Javalin follows semantic versioning, meaning there are no breaking changes unless it changes from 2.X to 3.X. Functionality added after 2.0.0 is marked with labels containing the version number: Added in v2.x.x

Docs for 1.7 (last 1.X version) can be found here.

If you like Javalin, please consider starring us on GitHub: Like Javalin? Star us on GitHub:

Getting started

Add the dependency:

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.javalin</groupId>
    <artifactId>javalin</artifactId>
    <version>2.4.0</version>
</dependency>

Not familiar with Maven? Click here for more detailed instructions.

compile 'io.javalin:javalin:2.4.0'

Not familiar with Gradle? Click here for more detailed instructions.

libraryDependencies += "io.javalin" % "javalin" % "2.4.0"
@Grab(group='io.javalin', module='javalin', version='2.4.0') 
[io.javalin/javalin "2.4.0"]
'io.javalin:javalin:jar:2.4.0'
<dependency org="io.javalin" name="javalin" rev="2.4.0" />

Start coding:

import io.javalin.Javalin;

public class HelloWorld {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Javalin app = Javalin.create().start(7000);
        app.get("/", ctx -> ctx.result("Hello World"));
    }
}
import io.javalin.Javalin

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    val app = Javalin.create().start(7000)
    app.get("/") { ctx -> ctx.result("Hello World") }
}
// You can wrap the main function
// in a Kotlin object

Handlers

Javalin has a three main handler types: before-handlers, endpoint-handlers, and after-handlers. (There are also exception-handlers and error-handlers, but we’ll get to them later). The before-, endpoint- and after-handlers require three parts:

The Handler interface has a void return type. You use ctx.result() to set the response which will be returned to the user.

Before handlers

Before-handlers are matched before every request (including static files, if you enable those).

You might know before-handlers as filters, interceptors, or middleware from other libraries.
app.before("/some-path/*", ctx -> {
    // runs before all request to /some-path/*
});
app.before(ctx -> {
    // calls before("/*", handler)
});
app.before("/some-path/*") { ctx ->
    // runs before all request to /some-path/*
}
app.before { ctx ->
    // calls before("/*", handler)
}

Endpoint handlers

Endpoint-handlers are matched in the order they are defined.

You might know endpoint-handlers as routes or middleware from other libraries.
app.get("/", ctx -> {
    // some code
    ctx.json(object)
});

app.post("/", ctx -> {
    // some code
    ctx.status(201)
});
app.get("/") { ctx ->
    // some code
    ctx.json(object)
}

app.post("/") { ctx ->
    // some code
    ctx.status(201)
}

Handler paths can include path-parameters. These are available via Context.pathParam()

get("/hello/:name", ctx -> {
    ctx.result("Hello: " + ctx.pathParam("name"));
});
get("/hello/:name") { ctx ->
    ctx.result("Hello: " + ctx.pathParam("name"))
}

Handler-paths can also include wildcard parameters (splats). These are available via Context.splat()

get("/hello/*/and/*", ctx -> {
    ctx.result("Hello: " + ctx.splat(0) + " and " + ctx.splat(1));
});
get("/hello/*/and/*") { ctx ->
    ctx.result("Hello: " + ctx.splat(0) + " and " + ctx.splat(1))
}

After handlers

After-handlers run after every request (even if an exception occurred)

You might know after-handlers as filters, interceptors, or middleware from other libraries.
app.after("/some-path/*", ctx -> {
    // runs after all request to /some-path/*
});

app.after(ctx -> {
    // run after every request
});
app.after("/some-path/*") { ctx ->
    // runs after all request to /some-path/*
}

app.after { ctx ->
    // run after every request
}

Handler groups

You can group your endpoints by using the routes() and path() methods. routes() creates a temporary static instance of Javalin so you can skip the app. prefix before your handlers:

app.routes(() -> {
    path("users", () -> {
        get(UserController::getAllUsers);
        post(UserController::createUser);
        path(":id", () -> {
            get(UserController::getUser);
            patch(UserController::updateUser);
            delete(UserController::deleteUser);
        });
    });
});
app.routes {
    path("users") {
        get(userController::getAllUsers);
        post(userController::createUser);
        path(":id") {
            get(userController::getUser);
            patch(userController::updateUser);
            delete(userController::deleteUser);
        }
    }
}

Note that path() prefixes your paths with / (if you don’t add it yourself).
This means that path("api", ...) and path("/api", ...) are equivalent.

CrudHandler

The CrudHandler is an interface that can be used within a routes() call:

app.routes(() -> {
    crud("users/:user-id", new UserController());
});
app.routes {
    crud("users/:user-id", UserController())
}

It implements the five most common crud operations:

interface CrudHandler {
    getAll(ctx)
    getOne(ctx, resourceId)
    create(ctx)
    update(ctx, resourceId)
    delete(ctx, resourceId)
}

Context

The Context object provides you with everything you need to handle a http-request. It contains the underlying servlet-request and servlet-response, and a bunch of getters and setters. The getters operate mostly on the request-object, while the setters operate exclusively on the response object.

ctx.appAttribute(class)             // retrieve an attribute from the app serving the request - since 2.3.0

// request methods:
ctx.req;                            // get underlying HttpServletRequest
ctx.anyFormParamNull("k1", "k2");   // returns true if any form-param is null
ctx.anyQueryParamNull("k1", "k2");  // returns true if any query-param is null
ctx.body();                         // get the request body as string
ctx.bodyAsBytes();                  // get the request body as byte-array
ctx.bodyAsClass(clazz);             // convert json body to object (java/kotlin)
ctx.body<T>();                      // convert json body to object (kotlin)
ctx.formParam("key");               // get form param
ctx.formParams("key");              // get form param with multiple values
ctx.formParamMap();                 // get all form param key/values as map
ctx.pathParam("key");               // get a path-parameter, ex "/:id" -> param("id")
ctx.pathParamMap();                 // get all param key/values as map
ctx.splat(0);                       // get splat by nr, ex "/*" -> splat(0)
ctx.splats();                       // get array of splat-values
ctx.attribute("key", "value");      // set a request attribute
ctx.attribute("key");               // get a request attribute
ctx.attributeMap();                 // get all attribute key/values as map
ctx.basicAuthCredentials()          // get username and password used for basic-auth
ctx.contentLength();                // get request content length
ctx.contentType();                  // get request content type
ctx.cookie("key");                  // get cookie by name
ctx.cookieMap();                    // get all cookie key/values as map
ctx.endpointHandlerPath();          // get path of the endpoint handler that matched the request - since 2.4.0
ctx.header("key");                  // get a header
ctx.headerMap();                    // get all header key/values as map
ctx.host();                         // get request host
ctx.ip();                           // get request up
ctx.isMultipart();                  // check if request is multipart
ctx.mapFormParams("k1", "k2");      // map form params to their values, returns null if any form param is missing
ctx.mapQueryParams("k1", "k2");     // map query params to their values, returns null if any query param is missing
ctx.matchedPath();                  // get matched path, ex "/path/:param"
ctx.path();                         // get request path
ctx.port();                         // get request port
ctx.protocol();                     // get request protocol
ctx.queryParam("key");              // get query param
ctx.queryParams("key");             // get query param with multiple values
ctx.queryParamMap();                // get all query param key/values as map
ctx.queryString();                  // get request query string
ctx.method();                       // get request method
ctx.scheme();                       // get request scheme
ctx.sessionAttribute("foo", "bar"); // set session-attribute "foo" to "bar"
ctx.sessionAttribute("foo");        // get session-attribute "foo"
ctx.sessionAttributeMap();          // get all session attributes as map
ctx.uploadedFile("key");            // get file from multipart form
ctx.uploadedFiles("key");           // get files from multipart form
ctx.url();                          // get request url
ctx.userAgent();                    // get request user agent
ctx.validatedFormParam()            // create a Validator for the form param - since 2.2.0
ctx.validatedPathParam()            // create a Validator for the path param - since 2.2.0
ctx.validatedQueryParam()           // create a Validator for the query param  -since 2.2.0
ctx.validatedBodyAsClass()          // create a Validator for the body (java) - since 2.2.0
ctx.validatedBody<T>                // create a Validator for the body (kotlin) - since 2.2.0

// response methods:
ctx.res;                            // get underlying HttpServletResponse
ctx.result("result");               // set result (string)
ctx.result(inputStream);            // set result (stream)
ctx.result(future);                 // set result (future)
ctx.resultString();                 // get response result (string)
ctx.resultStream();                 // get response result (stream)
ctx.resultFuture();                 // get response result (future)
ctx.header("key", "value");         // set response header
ctx.html("body html");              // set result and html content type
ctx.json(object);                   // serialize object and set as result
ctx.json(future);                   // serialize object when future resolves - since 2.2.0
ctx.redirect("/location");          // redirect to location
ctx.redirect("/location", 302);     // redirect to location with code
ctx.status();                       // get response status
ctx.status(404);                    // set response status
ctx.cookie("key", "value");         // set cookie with key and value
ctx.cookie("key", "value", 0);      // set cookie with key, value, and maxage
ctx.cookie(cookie);                 // set cookie using a Cookie object
ctx.removeCookie("key");            // remove cookie by key
ctx.removeCookie("key", "/path");   // remove cookie by key and path

The ctx.cookieStore() functions provide a convenient way for sharing information between handlers, request, or even servers:

ctx.cookieStore(key, value); // store any type of value
ctx.cookieStore(key); // read any type of value
ctx.clearCookieStore(); // clear the cookie-store

The cookieStore works like this:

  1. The first handler that matches the incoming request will populate the cookie-store-map with the data currently stored in the cookie (if any).
  2. This map can now be used as a state between handlers on the same request-cycle, pretty much in the same way as ctx.attribute()
  3. At the end of the request-cycle, the cookie-store-map is serialized, base64-encoded and written to the response as a cookie. This allows you to share the map between requests and servers (in case you are running multiple servers behind a load-balancer)

Example:

serverOneApp.post("/cookie-storer") { ctx ->
    ctx.cookieStore("string", "Hello world!");
    ctx.cookieStore("i", 42);
    ctx.cookieStore("list", Arrays.asList("One", "Two", "Three"));
}
serverTwoApp.get("/cookie-reader") { ctx -> // runs on a different server than serverOneApp
    String string = ctx.cookieStore("string")
    int i = ctx.cookieStore("i")
    List<String> list = ctx.cookieStore("list")
}
serverOneApp.post("/cookie-storer") { ctx ->
    ctx.cookieStore("string", "Hello world!")
    ctx.cookieStore("i", 42)
    ctx.cookieStore("list", listOf("One", "Two", "Three"))
}
serverTwoApp.get("/cookie-reader") { ctx -> // runs on a different server than serverOneApp
    val string = ctx.cookieStore<String>("string")
    val i = ctx.cookieStore<Int>("i")
    val list = ctx.cookieStore<List<String>>("list")
}

Since the client stores the cookie, the get request to serverTwoApp will be able to retrieve the information that was passed in the post to serverOneApp.

Please note that cookies have a max-size of 4kb.

Context extensions

Context extensions give Java developers a way of extending the Context object.

One of the most popular features of Kotlin is extension functions. When working with an object you don’t own in Java, you often end up making MyUtil.action(object, ...). If you, for example, want to serialize an object and set it as the result on the Context, you might do:

app.get("/", ctx -> MyMapperUtil.serialize(ctx, myMapper, myObject)); // three args, what happens where?

With context extensions you can add custom extensions on the context:

app.get("/", ctx -> ctx.use(MyMapper.class).serialize(object)); // use MyMapper to serialize object

Context extensions have to be added before you can use them, this would typically be done in the first before filter of your app:

app.before(ctx -> ctx.register(MyMapper.class, new MyMapper(ctx, otherDependency));

Validation

You can access Javalin’s Validator class through the ctx.validateX methods, or by calling JavalinValidation.validate(). There are two validators, Validator and TypedValidator<T>.

The API is fairly small:

// methods available on Validator:
notNullOrEmpty(); // check that value is not null of empty (all validators do this by default, but can be called for readability)
matches("regex"); // check that value matches regex
asBoolean(); // validate and return TypedValidator<Boolean>
asDouble(); // validate and return TypedValidator<Double>
asFloat(); // validate and return TypedValidator<Float>
asInt(); // validate and return TypedValidator<Integer>
asLong(); // validate and return TypedValidator<Long>
asClass(MyClass.class); // validate and return TypedValidator<MyClass>

// methods available on both Validator and TypedValidator<T>:
check(v -> ...); // check value against supplied lambda
getOrThrow(); // validate and get value
// only available on Validator:
notNullOrEmpty() // check that value is not null of empty (all validators do this by default, but can be called for readability)
matches("regex") // check that value matches regex
asBoolean() // validate and return TypedValidator<Boolean>
asDouble() // validate and return TypedValidator<Double>
asFloat() // validate and return TypedValidator<Float>
asInt() // validate and return TypedValidator<Int>
asLong() // validate and return TypedValidator<Long>
asClass<MyClass>() // validate and return TypedValidator<MyClass>

// available on both Validator and TypedValidator<T>:
check({ ... }) // check value against supplied lambda
getOrThrow() // validate and get value

Custom converters

If you need to convert non-included class (asClass()), you have to register a custom converter:

JavalinValidation.register(Instant::class.java, v -> Instant.ofEpochMilli(v.toLong());
JavalinValidation.register(Instant::class.java) { Instant.ofEpochMilli(it.toLong()) }

Validation examples

// validate two dependent query parameters:
Instant fromDate = ctx.validatedQueryParam("from").asClass(Instant.class).getOrThrow();
Instant toDate = ctx.validatedQueryParam("to").asClass(Instant.class)
        .check(it -> it.isAfter(fromDate), "'to' has to be after 'from'")
        .getOrThrow();

// validate a json body:
MyObject myObject = ctx.validatedBodyAsClass(MyObject.class)
        .check(obj -> obj.myObjectProperty == someValue)
        .getOrThrow();
// validate two dependent query parameters:
val fromDate = ctx.validatedQueryParam("from").asClass<Instant>().getOrThrow()
val toDate = ctx.validatedQueryParam("to").asClass<Instant>()
        .check({ it.isAfter(fromDate) }, "'to' has to be after 'from'")
        .getOrThrow()

// validate a json body:
val myObject = ctx.validatedBody<MyObject>()
        .check({ it.myObjectProperty == someValue })
        .getOrThrow()

If any of the validators find errors, a BadRequestResponse is thrown:

"Query parameter 'from' with value 'TEST' is not a valid Instant"
"Query parameter 'to' with value '1262347000000' invalid - 'to' has to be after 'from'"
"Request body as MyObject invalid - Check failed" // can set custom error message in check()

Access manager

Javalin has a functional interface AccessManager, which let’s you set per-endpoint authentication and/or authorization. It’s common to use before-handlers for this, but per-endpoint security handlers give you much more explicit and readable code. You can implement your access-manager however you want. Here is an example implementation:

// Set the access-manager that Javalin should use
app.accessManager((handler, ctx, permittedRoles) -> {
    MyRole userRole = getUserRole(ctx);
    if (permittedRoles.contains(userRole)) {
        handler.handle(ctx);
    } else {
        ctx.status(401).result("Unauthorized");
    }
});

Role getUserRole(Context ctx) {
    // determine user role based on request
    // typically done by inspecting headers
}

enum MyRole implements Role {
    ANYONE, ROLE_ONE, ROLE_TWO, ROLE_THREE;
}

app.routes(() -> {
    get("/un-secured",   ctx -> ctx.result("Hello"),   roles(ANYONE));
    get("/secured",      ctx -> ctx.result("Hello"),   roles(ROLE_ONE));
});
// Set the access-manager that Javalin should use
app.accessManager { handler, ctx, permittedRoles ->
    val userRole = getUserRole(ctx) // determine user role based on request
    if (permittedRoles.contains(userRole)) {
        handler.handle(ctx)
    } else {
        ctx.status(401).result("Unauthorized")
    }
}

fun getUserRole(ctx: Context) : Role {
    // determine user role based on request
    // typically done by inspecting headers
}

internal enum class MyRole : Role {
    ANYONE, ROLE_ONE, ROLE_TWO, ROLE_THREE
}

app.routes {
    get("/un-secured",   { ctx -> ctx.result("Hello")},   roles(MyRole.ANYONE));
    get("/secured",      { ctx -> ctx.result("Hello")},   roles(MyRole.ROLE_ONE));
}

Default responses

Javalin comes with a built in class called HttpResponseException, which can be used for default responses.
If the client accepts JSON, a JSON object is returned. Otherwise a plain text response is returned.

app.post("/") { throw ForbiddenResponse("Off limits!") }

If client accepts JSON:

{
    "title": "Off limits!",
    "status": 403,
    "type": "https://javalin.io/documentation#forbiddenresponse",
    "details": []
}

Otherwise:

Forbidden

You can include a Map<String, String> of details if you wish.

RedirectResponse

Returns a 302 Found response with the default title Redirected.

BadRequestResponse

Returns a 400 Bad Request response with the default title Bad request.

UnauthorizedResponse

Returns a 401 Unauthorized response with the default title Unauthorized.

ForbiddenResponse

Returns a 403 Forbidden response with the default title Forbidden.

NotFoundResponse

Returns a 404 Not Found response with the default title Not found.

MethodNotAllowedResponse

Returns a 405 Method Not Allowed response with the default title Method not allowed.

ConflictResponse

Returns a 409 Conflict response with the default title Conflict.

GoneResponse

Returns a 410 Gone response with the default title Gone.

InternalServerErrorResponse

Returns a 500 Internal Server Error response with the default title Internal server error.

BadGatewayResponse

Returns a 502 Bad Gateway response with the default title Bad gateway.

ServiceUnavailableResponse

Returns a 503 Service Unavailable response with the default title Service unavailable.

GatewayTimeoutResponse

Returns a 504 Gateway Timeout response with the default title Gateway timeout.

Exception Mapping

All handlers (before, endpoint, after) can throw Exception (and any subclass of Exception) The app.exception() method gives you a way of handling these exceptions:

app.exception(NullPointerException.class, (e, ctx) -> {
    // handle nullpointers here
});

app.exception(Exception.class, (e, ctx) -> {
    // handle general exceptions here
    // will not trigger if more specific exception-mapper found
});
app.exception(NullPointerException::class.java) { e, ctx ->
    // handle nullpointers here
}

app.exception(Exception::class.java) { e, ctx ->
    // handle general exceptions here
    // will not trigger if more specific exception-mapper found
}

Error Mapping

Error mapping is similar to exception mapping, but it operates on HTTP status codes instead of Exceptions:

app.error(404, ctx -> {
    ctx.result("Generic 404 message")
});
app.error(404) { ctx ->
    ctx.result("Generic 404 message")
}

It can make sense to use them together:

app.exception(FileNotFoundException.class, (e, ctx) -> {
    ctx.status(404);
}).error(404, ctx -> {
    ctx.result("Generic 404 message")
});
app.exception(FileNotFoundException::class.java) { e, ctx ->
    ctx.status(404)
}.error(404) { ctx ->
    ctx.result("Generic 404 message")
}

WebSockets

Javalin has a very intuitive way of handling WebSockets, similar to most node frameworks:

app.ws("/websocket/:path", ws -> {
    ws.onConnect(session -> System.out.println("Connected"));
    ws.onMessage((session, message) -> {
        System.out.println("Received: " + message);
        session.getRemote().sendString("Echo: " + message);
    });
    ws.onClose((session, statusCode, reason) -> System.out.println("Closed"));
    ws.onError((session, throwable) -> System.out.println("Errored"));
});
app.ws("/websocket/:path") { ws ->
    ws.onConnect { session -> println("Connected") }
    ws.onMessage { session, message ->
        println("Received: " + message)
        session.remote.sendString("Echo: " + message)
    }
    ws.onClose { session, statusCode, reason -> println("Closed") }
    ws.onError { session, throwable -> println("Errored") }
}

WsSession

The WsSession object wraps Jetty’s Session and adds the following methods:

session.send("message")               // send a string message to session remote (the ws client)
session.send(bytes)                   // send a binary message to session remote (the ws client)
session.queryString()                 // get query-string from upgrade-request
session.queryParam("key")             // get query-param from upgrade-request
session.queryParams("key")            // get query-params from upgrade-request
session.queryParamMap()               // get query-param-map from upgrade-request
session.mapQueryParams("k1", "k2")    // map query-params to values (only useful in kotlin)
session.anyQueryParamNull("k1", "k2") // check if any query-param from upgrade-request is null
session.pathParam("key")              // get a path-parameter, ex "/:id" -> param("id")
session.pathParamMap()                // get all param key/values as map
session.header("key")                 // get a header
session.headerMap()                   // get all header key/values as map
session.host()                        // get request host

WebSocket logging

You can add a WebSocket logger by calling app.wsLogger(). The method takes a WsHandler, (the same interface as a normal app.ws() call), and can be used to log events of all types. The following example just shows onMessage, but onConnect, onError and onClose are all available:

app.wsLogger( ws -> {
    ws.onMessage((session, message) -> {
        System.out.println("Received: " + message);
    });
});
app.wsLogger { ws ->
    ws.onMessage { session, message ->
        println("Received: " + message)
    }
}

The logger runs after the WebSocket handler for the endpoint

Lifecycle events

Javalin has five lifecycle events: SERVER_STARTING, SERVER_STARTED, SERVER_START_FAILED, SERVER_STOPPING and SERVER_STOPPED. The snippet below shows all of them in action:

Javalin app = Javalin.create()
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STARTING, () -> { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STARTED, () -> { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_START_FAILED, () -> { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STOPPING, () -> { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STOPPED, () -> { ... });

app.start(); // SERVER_STARTING -> (SERVER_STARTED || SERVER_START_FAILED)
app.stop(); // SERVER_STOPPING -> SERVER_STOPPED
val app = Javalin.create()
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STARTING) { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STARTED) { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_START_FAILED) { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STOPPING) { ... })
    .event(JavalinEvent.SERVER_STOPPED) { ... });

app.start() // SERVER_STARTING -> (SERVER_STARTED || SERVER_START_FAILED)
app.stop() // SERVER_STOPPING -> SERVER_STOPPED

Server setup

Javalin runs on an embedded Jetty.

Starting and stopping

To start and stop the server, use the aptly named start() and stop methods.

Javalin app = Javalin.create()
    .start() // start server (sync/blocking)
    .stop() // stop server (sync/blocking)

Configuration

The following snippet shows all the configuration currently available in Javalin:

Javalin.create() // create has to be called first
    .attribute(class, object) // register an app attribute - since 2.3.0
    .attribute(class) // retrieve an app attribute - since 2.3.0
    .contextPath("/context-path") // set a context path (default is "/")
    .dontIgnoreTrailingSlashes() // treat '/test' and '/test/' as different URLs
    .defaultContentType(string) // set a default content-type for responses
    .disableStartupBanner() // remove the javalin startup banner from logs
    .enableCaseSensitiveUrls() // allow urls like '/camelCasedUrl' and match on case
    .enableCorsForOrigin("origin") // enables cors for the specified origin(s)
    .enableAutogeneratedEtags() // auto-generates etags for get-requests
    .enableDebugLogging() // enable extensive debug logging
    .enableRouteOverview("/path") // render a HTML page showing all mapped routes
    .enableSinglePageMode("path", "filePath") // catch 404s and return file-content as response body
    .enableStaticFiles("/public") // enable static files (opt. second param Location.CLASSPATH/Location.EXTERNAL)
    .enableWebJars() // enables webjars at /webjars/name/version/file.ext
    .disableDynamicGzip() // don't gzip any dynamic responses (static files are still gzipped)
    .maxBodySizeForRequestCache(long) // set max body size for request cache
    .port(port) // set the port
    .requestLogger( ... ) // see section below
    .server( ... ) // see section below
    .sessionHandler( ... ) // see section below
    .start(); // start the server (has to be called last)
Javalin.create().apply { // create has to be called first
    attribute(class, object) // register an app attribute - since 2.3.0
    attribute(class) // retrieve an app attribute - since 2.3.0
    contextPath("/context-path") // set a context path (default is "/")
    dontIgnoreTrailingSlashes() // treat '/test' and '/test/' as different URLs
    defaultContentType(string) // set a default content-type for responses
    disableStartupBanner() // remove the javalin startup banner from logs
    enableAutogeneratedEtags() // auto-generates etags for get-requests
    enableCaseSensitiveUrls() // allow urls like '/camelCasedUrl' and match on case
    enableCorsForOrigin("origin") // enables cors for the specified origin(s)
    enableDebugLogging() // enable extensive debug logging
    enableRouteOverview("/path") // render a HTML page showing all mapped routes
    enableSinglePageMode("path", "filePath") // catch 404s and return file-content as response body
    enableStaticFiles("/public") // enable static files (opt. second param Location.CLASSPATH/Location.EXTERNAL)
    enableWebJars() // enables webjars at /webjars/name/version/file.ext
    disableDynamicGzip() // don't gzip any dynamic responses (static files are still gzipped)
    maxBodySizeForRequestCache(long) // set max body size for request cache
    port(port) // set the port
    requestLogger( ... ) // see section below
    server( ... ) // see section below
    sessionHandler( ... ) // see section below
}.start() // start the server (has to be called last)

Any argument to contextPath() will be normalized to the form /path (slash, path, no-slash)

RequestLogger

You can add a custom RequestLogger by calling app.requestLogger():

app.requestLogger((ctx, timeMs) -> {
    System.out.println(ctx.method() + " "  + ctx.path() + " took " + timeMs + " ms");
    // prints "GET /hello took 4.5 ms"
})
app.requestLogger { ctx, timeMs ->
    println("${ctx.method()} ${ctx.path()} took $timeMs ms")
    // prints "GET /hello took 4.5 ms"
}

Custom server

If you need to customize the embedded server, you can call the app.server() method:

app.server(() -> {
    Server server = new Server();
    // do whatever you want here
    return server;
});
app.server {
    val server = Server()
    // do whatever you want here
    server
}

Custom SessionHandler

You can configure the SessionHandler by calling app.sessionHandler(...).

If you want to persist sessions to the file system, you could use a FileSessionDataStore:

private fun fileSessionHandler() = SessionHandler().apply {
    httpOnly = true
    sessionCache = DefaultSessionCache(this).apply {
        sessionDataStore = FileSessionDataStore().apply {
            val baseDir = File(System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir"))
            storeDir = File(baseDir, "javalin-session-store").apply { mkdir() }
        }
    }
}

Read more about how to configure sessions in Jetty’s documentation.

Custom jetty handlers

You can configure your embedded jetty-server with a handler-chain (example), and Javalin will attach it’s own handlers to the end of this chain.

StatisticsHandler statisticsHandler = new StatisticsHandler();

Javalin.create()
    .server(() -> {
        Server server = new Server();
        server.setHandler(statisticsHandler);
        return server;
    })
    .start();
val statisticsHandler = StatisticsHandler()

Javalin.create().apply {
    server {
        Server(queuedThreadPool).apply {
            handler = statisticsHandler
        }
    }
}.start();

SSL/HTTP2

To configure SSL or HTTP2 you need to use a custom server (see previous section).
An example of a custom server with SSL can be found in the examples, HelloWorldSecure.

A custom HTTP2 server is a bit more work to set up, but we have a repo with a fully functioning example server in both Kotlin and Java: javalin-http2-example

Static Files

You can enabled static file serving by doing app.enableStaticFiles("/classpath-folder"), and/or app.enableStaticFiles("/folder", Location.EXTERNAL). Static resource handling is done after endpoint matching, meaning your self-defined endpoints have higher priority. The process looks like this:

before-handlers
endpoint-handlers
if no-endpoint-handler-found
    static-file-handler
    if static-file-found
        static-file-handler send response
    else 
        response is 404
after-handlers

If you do app.enableStaticFiles("/classpath-folder"). Your index.html file at /classpath-folder/index.html will be available at http://{host}:{port}/index.html and http://{host}:{port}/.

You can call enableStaticFiles multiple times to set up multiple handlers.

WebJars can be enabled by calling enableWebJars(), they will be available at /webjars/name/version/file.ext.

Caching

Javalin serves static files with the Cache-Control header set to max-age=0. This means that browsers will always ask if the file is still valid. If the version the browser has in cache is the same as the version on the server, Javalin will respond with a 304 Not modified status, and no response body. This tells the browser that it’s okay to keep using the cached version. If you want to skip this check, you can put files in a dir called immutable, and Javalin will set max-age=31622400, which means that the browser will wait one year before checking if the file is still valid. This should only be used for versioned library files, like vue-2.4.2.min.js, to avoid the browser ending up with an outdated version if you change the file content. WebJars also use max-age=31622400, as the version number is always part of the path.

FAQ

Frequently asked questions

Javadoc

There is a Javadoc available at javadoc.io.
Please contribute to the Javadoc if you can.

Deploying

To deploy Javalin, simply create a jar with dependencies, then launch the jar with java -jar filename.jar. That’s it.
Javalin has an embedded server, so you don’t need an application server.
There is also a tutorial on deploying Javalin to Heroku.

Uploads

Uploaded files are easily accessible via ctx.uploadedFiles():

app.post("/upload", ctx -> {
    ctx.uploadedFiles("files").forEach(file -> {
        FileUtil.streamToFile(file.getContent(), "upload/" + file.getName())
    });
});
app.post("/upload") { ctx ->
    ctx.uploadedFiles("files").forEach { (contentType, content, name, extension) ->
        FileUtil.streamToFile(content, "upload/$name")
    }
}

The corresponding HTML could look something like:

<form method="post" action="/upload" enctype="multipart/form-data">
    <input type="file" name="files" multiple>
    <button>Submit</button>
</form>

Using Javalin without Jetty

If you want to use Javalin with an application server or a servlet container, such as Tomcat, WebLocic, etc, you can use EmbeddedJavalin.createServlet():

@WebServlet(urlPatterns = ["/rest/*"], name = "MyServlet")
class MyServlet extends HttpServlet() {
    JavalinServlet javalin = EmbeddedJavalin()
        .get("/rest") { ctx -> ctx.result("Hello!") }
        .createServlet()
    @Override
    void service(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp) {
        javalin.service(req, resp)
    }
}
@WebServlet(urlPatterns = ["/rest/*"], name = "MyServlet")
class MyServlet : HttpServlet() {
    val javalin = EmbeddedJavalin()
        .get("/rest") { ctx -> ctx.result("Hello!") }
        .createServlet()

    override fun service(req: HttpServletRequest, resp: HttpServletResponse) {
        javalin.service(req, resp)
    }
}

The createServlet() method is the same method that Javalin uses internally when attaching itself to Jetty. Jetty server methods like app.contextPath(), app.start(), etc, will throw exceptions if called on EmbeddedJavalin. You have to manually exclude Jetty from your build files if you want to use this approach.

Adding a logger

If you’re reading this, you’ve probably seen the following message while running Javalin:

SLF4J: Failed to load class "org.slf4j.impl.StaticLoggerBinder".
SLF4J: Defaulting to no-operation (NOP) logger implementation
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#StaticLoggerBinder for further details.

This is nothing to worry about.

Like a lot of other Java projects, Javalin does not have a logger included, which means that you have to add your own logger. If you don’t know/care a lot about Java loggers, the easiest way to fix this is to add the following dependency to your project:

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
    <artifactId>slf4j-simple</artifactId>
    <version>1.7.25</version>
</dependency>

This will remove the warning from SLF4J, and enable helpful debug messages while running Javalin.

Asynchronous requests

While the default threadpool (200 threads) is enough for most use cases, sometimes slow operations should be run asynchronously. Luckily it’s very easy in Javalin, just pass a CompletableFuture to ctx.result():

import io.javalin.Javalin

fun main(args: Array<String>) {
    val app = Javalin.create().start(7000)
    app.get("/") { ctx -> ctx.result(getFuture()) }
}

// hopefully your future is less pointless than this:
private fun getFuture() = CompletableFuture<String>().apply {
    Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor().schedule({ this.complete("Hello World!") }, 1, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
}
Synonyms for ctrl+f: Async, CompletableFuture, Future, Concurrent, Concurrency

You can only set future results in endpoint handlers (get/post/put/etc).
After-handlers, exception-handlers and error-handlers run like you’d expect them to after the future has been resolved or rejected.

Configuring the JSON mapper

The JSON mapper can be configured like this:

Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().create();
JavalinJson.setFromJsonMapper(gson::fromJson);
JavalinJson.setToJsonMapper(gson::toJson);

Configuring Jackson

The JSON mapper uses Jackson by default, which can be configured by calling:

JavalinJackson.configure(objectMapper)

Note that these are global settings, and can’t be configured per instance of Javalin.

Views and Templates

Javalin looks for templates/markdown files in src/resources, and uses the correct rendering engine based on the extension of your template. Javalin currently supports six template engines (see below), as well as markdown. You can also register your own rendering engine.

ctx.render("/templateFile.ext", model("firstName", "John", "lastName", "Doe"))
ctx.render("/templateFile.ext", mapOf("firstName" to "John", "lastName" to "Doe"))

Register:

JavalinRenderer.register(new JavalinPebble(), ".peb", ".pebble");

JavalinRenderer.register((filePath, model) -> {
    return MyRenderer.render(filePath, model);
}, ".ext");

Configure:

JavalinThymeleaf.configure(templateEngine)
JavalinVelocity.configure(velocityEngine)
JavalinFreemarker.configure(configuration)
JavalinMustache.configure(mustacheFactory)
JavalinJtwig.configure(configuration)
JavalinPebble.configure(configuration)
JavalinCommonmark.configure(htmlRenderer, markdownParser)

Note that these are global settings, and can’t be configured per instance of Javalin.

TimeoutExceptions and ClosedChannelExceptions

So, you’re seeing TimeoutExceptions and ClosedChannelExceptions in your DEBUG logs? There is nothing to worry about, typically a browser will keep the HTTP connection open until the server terminates it. When this happens is decided by the server’s idleTimeout setting, which is 30 seconds by default in Jetty/Javalin. This is not a bug.

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